ファーマナビゲーター β遮断薬編 改訂版

出版社: メディカルレビュー社
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発行日: 2011-10-01
分野: 臨床医学:内科  >  循環器一般
ISBN: 9784779207235
シリーズ: ファーマナビゲーター
電子書籍版: 2011-10-01 (改訂版第1刷)
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ナビゲーターシリーズ薬剤編の第11巻。2009年7月初版の改訂版。新しい臨床試験やガイドライン,新しく効能が追加された薬の情報など追加。

目次

  • ファーマナビゲーター β遮断薬編 改訂版

    ―目次―

    Chapter1 薬理作用と薬物動態
    Chapter2 分類
    Chapter3 病態と治療
    Chapter4 EBM
    Chapter5 併用療法
    Chapter6 症例の実際
    Chapter7 使用上の注意

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本参考文献は電子書籍掲載内容を元にしております。

Chapter1 薬理作用と薬物動態

P.16 掲載の参考文献
1) Wang W, Zhu W, Wang S et al: Sustained β1-adrenergic stimulation modulates cardiac contractility by Ca2+/calmodulin kinase signaling path-way. Circ Res 95: 798-806, 2004
2) Pei G, Samama P, Lohse M et al: A constitutively active mutant β2-adrenergic receptor is constitutively desensitized and phosphorylated. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 91: 2699-2702, 1994
5) Asano K, Zisman LS, Yoshikawa T et al: Bucindolol, a nonselective β1-and β2-adrenergic receptor antagonist, decreases β-adrenergic receptor density in cultured embryonic chick cardiac myocyte membranes. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 37: 678-691, 2001
7) Chen ZM, Pan HC, Chen YP et al: Early intravenous then oral metoprolol in 45,852 patients with acute myocardial infarction: randomized place-bo-controled trial. Lancet 366: 1622-1632, 2005

Chapter2 分類

P.26 掲載の参考文献
2) Chatterjee SS: The cardioselective and hypotensive effects of bisoprolol in hypertensive asthmatics. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 8 (Suppl 11): S74-S77, 1986
3) Wellstein A, Palm D, Belz GG et al: Reduction of exercise tachycardia in man after propranolol, atenolol and bisoprolol in comparison to β-adrenoceptor occupancy. Eur Heart J 8 (Suppl M): 3-8, 1987
4) Schnabel P, Maack C, Mies F et al: Binding properties of β-blockers at recombinant β1-, β2,-, and β3-adrenoceptors. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 36: 466-471, 2000
5) 日本高血圧学会高血圧治療ガイドライン作成委員会編: 高血圧治療ガイドライン 2009. ライフサイエンス出版, 東京, 2009, pp.24-45
6) 心筋梗塞二次予防に関するガイドライン(2006年改訂版). 日本循環器学会, 2006, pp.16-17 (http://www.j-circ.or.jp/guideline/)
7) Ishikawa K, Miyataka M, Kanamasa K et al: β-blockers reduce the incidence of cardiac events in post-myocardial infarction patients. Jpn Heart J 41: 279-294, 2000
9) Leopold G: Balanced pharmacokinetics and metabolism of bisoprolol. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 8 (Suppl 11): S16-S20, 1986
11) Lindholm LH, Carlberg B, Samuelsson O: Should β blockers remain first choice in the treatment of primary hypertension? A meta-analysis. Lancet 366: 1545-1553, 2005
13) The Cardiac Insufficiency Bisoprolol Study II (CIBIS-II): a randomised trial. Lancet 353: 9-13, 1999
15) CIBIS III trial: Bisoprolol treatment for CHF leads to 46% reduction in sudden death after one year. Cardiovasc J S Afr l7: 278, 2006

Chapter3 病態と治療

P.41 掲載の参考文献
2) Bangalore S, Sawhney S, Messerli FH: Relation of β-blocker-induced heart rate lowering and cardioprotection in hypertension. J Am Coll Cardiol 52: 1482-1489, 2008
4) Barron HV, Viskin S, Lundstrom RJ et al: β-blocker dosages and mortality after myocardial infarction: data from a large health maintenance organization. Arch Intern Med 158: 449-453, 1998
5) Yusuf S, Peto R, Lewis J et al: β blockade during and after myocardial infarction: an overview of the randomized trials. Prog Cardiovasc Dis 5: 335-371, 1985
15) Yusuf S, Sleight P, Pogue J et al: Effects of an angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor, ramipril, on cardiovascular events in high-risk patients. The Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation Study Investigators. N Engl J Med 342: 145-153, 2000
18) Turnbull F, Blood Pressure Lowering Treatment Trialists' Collaboration: Effects of different blood-pressure-lowering regimens on major cardiovascular events: results of prospectively-designed overviews of randomized trials. Lancet 362: 1527-1535, 2003
20) Shiokawa O, Sadoshima S, Okada Y et al: a-and β-adrenergic receptors for noradrenergic innervation modulate the lower limits of cerebral and cerebellar blood flow autoregulation in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Gerontology 35: 106-112, 1989
22) Fogari R, Zoppi A, Tettamanti F et al: β-blocker effects on plasma lipids in antihypertensive therapy: importance of the duration of treatment and the lipid status before treatment. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 16 (Supp15): S76-S80, 1990
23) Salpeter SR, Ormiston TM, Salpeter EE: Cardioselective β-blockers in patients with reactive airway disease: a meta-analysis. An Intern Med 137: 715-725, 2002
25) Gottlieb SS, McCarter RJ, Vogel RA: Effect of β-blockade on mortality among hi-risk and low-risk patients after myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med 339: 489-497, 1998
26) Dransfield MT, Rowe SM, Johnson JE et al: Use of β-blockers and the risk of death in hospitalized patients with acute exacerbations of COPD, Thorax 63: 301-305, 2008
P.52 掲載の参考文献
4) Sleilaty G, Madi-Jebara S, Yazigi A et al: Postoperative oral amiodarone versus oral bisoprolol as prophylaxis against atrial fibrillation after coronary artery bypass graft surgery: A prospective randomized trial. Int J Cardiol: 2008 Aug 9 (Epub ahead of print)
6) Kennedy HL, Brooks MM, Barker AH et al: β-blocker therapy in the Cardiac Arrhythmia Suppression Trial. CAST Investigators. Am J Cardiol 74: 674-680, 1994
7) Boutitie F, Boissel Jp, Connolly SJ et al: Amiodarone interaction with β-blockers: analysis of the merged EMIAT (European Myocardial Infarct Amiodarone Trial) and CAMIAT (Canadian Amiodarone Myocardial Infarction Trial) databases. The EMIAT and CAMIAT Investigators. Circulation 99: 2268-2275, 1999
P.62 掲載の参考文献
1) 吉川勉: 心筋梗塞の二次予防: 慢性期薬物療法: β遮断薬とCa拮抗薬, 新 目でみる循環器病シリーズ10心筋梗塞症(吉野秀朗 編), メジカルビュー社, 東京, 2007, p.286
2) Asanuma H, Minamino T, Sanada S et al: β-adrenoceptor blocker carvedilol provides cardioprotection via an adenosine-dependent mechanism in ischemic canine hearts. Circulation 1O9: 2773-2779, 2004
3) Randomised trial of intravenous atenolol among 16027 cases of suspected acute myocardial infarction. ISIS-1. First International Study of Infarct Survival Collaborative Group. Lancet 2: 57-66, 1986
4) Roberts R, Rogers WJ, Mueller HS: Immediate versus deferred β-blockade following thrombolytic therapy in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Results of the Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) II-B study. Circulation 83: 422-437, 1991
6) Chen ZM, Pan HC, Chen YP et al: Early intravenous then oral metoprololin 45,852 patients with acute myocardial infarction: randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 366: 1622-1632, 2005
8) Halkin A, Grines CL, Cox DA et al: Impact of intravenous β-blockade before primary angioplasty on survival in patients undergoing mechanical reperfusion therapy for acute myocardial infarction. J Am Coll Cardiol l9: 1780-1787, 2004
P.71 掲載の参考文献
1) Eicchorn EJ, Bristow MR: Medical therapy can improve the biological properties of the chronically failing heart. A new era in the treatment of heart failure. Circulation 94: 2285-2296, 1996
2) LeJemtel TH, Galvao M, Sonnenblick EH: β-adrenergic blockade reverses, while ACE inhibition attenuates, left ventricular remodeling in patients with chronic heart failure. Heart Failure 14: 57-63, 1998
5) Aranda JM Jr, Woo GW, Conti JB et al: Use of cardiac resynchronization therapy to optimize β-blocker therapy in patients with heart failure and prolonged QRS duration. Am J Cardiol 95: 889-891, 2005
6) Stecker EC, Fendrick AM, Knight BP, Aaronson KD: Prophylactic pacemaker use to allow β-blocker therapy in patients with chronic heart failure with bradycardia. Am Heart J 151: 820-828, 2006
P.84 掲載の参考文献
1) 松尾汎: 定義・分類. 大動脈瘤・大動脈解離の臨床と病理 (由谷親夫, 松尾汎編), 医学書院, 東京, 2004, pp.2-6
2) 松尾汎, 井上寛治, 打田日出夫ほか: 偽腔血栓閉塞型大動脈解離をどう診療するか: 多施設調査結果をふまえて. 脈管学42: 67-72, 2002
4) 日本脈管学会編: 下肢閉塞性動脈硬化症の診断・治療指針2. メディカルトリビューン, 東京, 2007, pp.1-109
P.95 掲載の参考文献
5) Poldermans D, Boersma E, Bax JJ et al;The effect of bisoprolol on perioperative mortality and myocardial infarction in high-risk patients undergoing vascular surgery. Dutch Echocardiographic Cardiac Risk Evaluation Applying Stress Echocardiography Study Group. N Engl J Med 341: 1789-1794, 1999
6) Devereaux PJ, Yang H, Yusuf S et al: Effects of extended-release metoprolol succinate in patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery (POISE trial): a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 371: 1839-1847, 2008

Chapter4 EBMとトピックス

P.127 掲載の参考文献
1) Waagstein F, Hjalmarson A. Varnauskas E, Wallentin I: Effect of chronic-β-adrenergicreceptor blockade in congestive cardiomyopathy. Br Heart J 37: 1022-1036, 1975
2) A randomized trial of β-blockade in heart failure. The Cardiac Insufficiency Bisoprolol Study (CIBIS) CIBIS Investigators and Committees. Circulation 90: 1765-1773, 1994
3) The Cardiac Insufficiency Bisoprolol Study II (CIBIS-II): arandomized trial. Lancet 353:9-13, 1999
4) Effect of metoprolol CR/XL in chronic heart failure: Metoprolol CR/XL Randomized Intervention Trial in Congestive Heart Failure (MERIT-HF). Lancet 353:2001-2007, 1999
6) Exner DV, Dries DL, Waclawiw MA et al: β-adrenergic blocking agent use and mortality in patients with asymptomatic and symptomatic left ventricular systolic dysfunction: a post hoc analysis of the Studies of Left Ventricular Dysfunction. J Am Coll Cardiol 33: 916-923, 1999
7) Randomised trial of intravenous atenolol among 16,027 cases of suspected acute myocardial infarction: ISIS-1. First International Study of Infarct Survival Collaborative Group. Lancet 12: 57-66, 1986
8) 前川正人: 急性心筋梗塞に対するcarteololの効果. 臨床薬理 19: 213- 214, 1988
9) 本村日出男: 急性心筋梗塞に対する各種β遮断薬の血行動態ならびに梗塞巣縮小効果に関する臨床的研究. 愛知医科大学医学会雑誌 21: 51-65, 1993
10) 吉富雄治, 矢野理子, 杉敏彦ほか: β遮断薬は急性心筋梗塞後のリモデリングに影響するか?: ACE阻害薬との比較検討. Jpn Circ j 63: 631S, 1999
P.128 掲載の参考文献
P.138 掲載の参考文献
1) Japanese B-Blockers and Calcium Antagonists Myocardial Infarction (JBCMI) Investigators: Comparison of the effects of beta blockers and calcium antagonists on cardiovascular events after acute myocardial infarction in Japanese subjects. Am J Cardiol 93: 969-973, 2004
2) A randomized trial of propranolol in patients with acute myocardiai infarction. I. Mortality results. JAMA 247: 1707-1714, 1982
5) 岡本 洋, 北畠 顕, 筒井裕之: X. 治療学の進歩. 3 最近の大規模臨床試験(心不全治療). 3)β遮断薬dJ-CHF(カルベジロール)試験の概要. 日本臨床 913: 537-542. 2007
6) Hori M, Kitabatake A, Tsutsui H et al;Rationale and design of a randomized trial to assess the effects of beta-blocker in diastolic heart failure;Japanese Diastolic Heart Failure Study (J-DHF). J Card Fail 11:542-547, 2005
10) Bergstrom A. Andersson B, Edner M et al: Effect of carvedilol on diastolic function in patients with diastolic heart failure and preserved systolic function. Results of the Swedish Doppler-echocardiographic study (SWEDIC). EurJ Heart Fail 6: 453-461, 2004
P.147 掲載の参考文献
9) Farinaro E, Stranges S, Guglielmucci G et al: Heart rate as a risk factor in hypertensive individuals. The Italian Tensio Pulse Study. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 9:196-202, 1999
17) CIVIS investigators and committees: The Cardiac Insufficiency Bisoprolol Study II (CIBIS-II): a randomised trial. Lancet 353:9-13, 1999

Chapter5 併用療法

P.153 掲載の参考文献
1) 日本高血圧学会高血圧治療ガイドライン作成委員会編: 高血圧治療ガイドライン2004. ライフサイエンス出版. 東京, 2004
P.154 掲載の参考文献
4) 冠攣縮性狭心症の診断と治療に関するガイドライン. CircJ 72 (Suppl. IV): 1195-1238, 2008
7) 慢性心不全治療ガイドライン作成委員会編: 慢性心不全治療ガイドライン(2010年改訂版). 日本循環器学会, 2010 (http://www.j-circ.or.jp/guideline/index.htm)
9) ALLHAT Officers and Coordinators for the ALLHAL Collaborative Research Group: Major outcomes in high-risk hypertensive patients randomized to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or calcium channel blocker vs diuretic: The Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering treatment to prevent Heart Attack Trial (ALLHAT). JAMA 288:2981-2997, 2002
P.160 掲載の参考文献
1) The Cardiac lnsufficiency Bisoprolol Study II (CIBIS-II): a randomised trial. Lancet 353:9-13, 1999
2) Effect of metoprolol CR/XL in chronic heart failure: Metoprolol CR/XL Randomised Intervention Trial in Congestive Heart Failure (MER IT-HF). Lancet 353:2001-2007, 1999
4) Exner DV, Dries DL, Waclawiw MA et al: β-adrenergic blocking agent use and mortality in patients with asymptomatic and symptomatic left ventricular systolic dysfunction: a post hoc analysis of the Studies of Left Ventricular Dysfunction. J Am Coll Cardiol 33:916-923, 1999
6) Vantrimpont P, Rouleau JL, Wun CC et al: Additive beneficial effects of β-blockers to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors in the Survival and Ventricular Enlargement (SAVE) Study. SAVE Investigators. J Am Coll Cardiol 29:229-236, 1997
P.166 掲載の参考文献
1) Ogihara T, Nakano K, Fukui T et al: Effects of candesartan compared with amlodipine in hypertensive patients with high cardiovascular risks: candesartan antihypertensive survival evaluation in Japan trial. Hypertension 51:393-398, 2008
3) 日本高血圧学会高血圧治療ガイドライン作成委員会: 高血圧治療ガイドライン2009年版 ライフサイエンス出版, 東京, 2009
4) von Kodotitsch Y, Csosz SK, Koschyk DH et al: Intramural hematoma of the aorta: predictors of progression to dissection and rupture. Circulation 107:1158-1163, 2003
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P.173 掲載の参考文献
1) Effects of treatment on morbidity in hypertension. Results in patients with diastolic blood pressures averaging 115 through 129mmHg. JAMA 202:1028-1034, 1967
2) MRC trial of treatment of mild hypertension: principal results, Medical Research Council Working Party. Br Med J 291:97-104, 1985
3) Medical Research Council trial of treatment of hypertension in older adults: principal results. MRC Working Party. Br Med J 304:405-412, 1992
10) The CAFE Investigators, for the Anglo-Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial (ASCOT) Investigators Differential Impact of Blood Pressure-Lowering Drugs on Central Aortic Differential Impact of Blood Pressure Lowering Drugs on Central Aortic Pressure and Clinical Outcomes Principal Results of the Conduit Artery Function Evaluation (CAFE). Circulation 113:1213-1225, 2006
P.179 掲載の参考文献
2) Jacob S, Rett K, Wicklmayr M et al: Differential effect of chronic treatment with two β-blocking agents on insulin sensitivity : the carvedilol-metoprorol study. J Hypertens 14:489-494, 1996
6) Englert RG, Barlage U: The addition of doxazosin to the treatment regimen of patients with hypertension not adequately controlled by β-blockers. Am Heart J 121: 311-316, 1991
7) Hunter Hypertension Research Group: Combined effect of doxazosin and pindolol on blood pressure control and lipid concentrations in patients with essential hypertension selected from general practice. J Hum Hypertens 6:181-184, 1992

Chapter6 症例の実際

P.185 掲載の参考文献
1) 猪又孝元: β遮断薬. 循環器科 62: 416-420, 2007
P.188 掲載の参考文献
1) Waagstein F, Hjalmarson A, Varnauskas E, Wallentin I: Effect of chronic β-adrenergic receptor blockade in congestive cardiomiopathy, Br Heart J 37:1022-1036, 1975
2) The cardiac insufficiency bisoprolol study H (CIBIS-II): a randomised trial. Lancet 353:9-13, 1975
3) Effect of metoprolol CR/XL in chronic heart failure;metoprolol CR/XL randomised intervention trial in congestive heart failure (MERIT-HF). Lancet 353:2001-2007. 1999
5) Wakita T, Numata Y. Ogata Y et al: The relationship between the improvement of cardiac function and the myocardial uptake of I-123 Metaiodo-benzylguanidine in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy treated by β-blocker. J Cardiol 26:177-183, 1995
6) 緒方康博, 角田隆輔: β遮断薬による慢性心不全治療-経過中の心機能 が悪化した症例に対する増量および他剤併用の効果-. Prog Med 28:147-150, 2008
P.195 掲載の参考文献
3) Jonas M, Reicher-Reiss H, Boyko V et al: Usefulness of β-blocker therapy in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and coronary artery disease. Bezafibrate Infarction Prevention (BIP) Study Group. Am J Cardiol 77:1273-1277, 1996
4) Haim M, Shotan A, Boyko V et al: Effect of β-blocker therapy in patients with coronary artery disease in New York Heart Association classes II and III. The Bezafibrate Infarction Prevention (BIP) Study Group. Am J Cardiol 81:1455-1460, 1998
5) Kernis SJ, Harjai KJ, Stone GW et al: Does β-blocker therapy improve clinical outcomes of acute myocardial infarction after successful primary angioplasty? J Am Coll Cardiol 43:1773-1779, 2004
6) Chan AW, Quinn MJ, Bhatt DL et al: Mortality benefit of β-blockade after successful elective percutaneous coronary intervention. J Am Coll Cardiol 40:669-675, 2002
12) Ashida K, Ochiai M, Yakushiji T et al: Efficacy of b-blocker therapy after percutaneous coronary intervention in patients with stable angina pectoris and poor left ventricular function. Euro Heart J 31 (suppl 1):493, 2010
P.205 掲載の参考文献
1) 池田隆徳: これでわかる危険な不整脈の診かたと治療-心臓突然死を予防するノウハウを知る, 南江堂, 東京, 2008
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P.214 掲載の参考文献
1) Leach SD, Toole AL, Stern II et al: Effect of β-adrenergic blockade on the growth rate of abdominal aortic aneurysms. Arch Surg 123:606-609, 1988
2) Propanolol Aneurysm Trial Investigators: Propranolol for small abdominal aortic aneurysms: results of a randomized trial. J Vasc Surg 35:72-79, 2002
3) Lindholt JS, Henneberg EW, Juul S, Fasting H: Impaired results of a randomised double blinded clinical trial of propranolol versus placebo on the expansion rate of small abdominal aortic aneurysms. Int Angiol 18:52-57, 1999
4) Gadowski GR, Pilcher DB, Ricci MA: Abdominal aortic aneurysm expansion rate: effect of size and β-adrenergic blockade. J Vasc Surg 19:727-731, 1994
6) Genoni M, Paul M, Jenni R et al: Chronic β-blocker therapy improves outcome and reduces treatment costs in chronic type B aortic dissection. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 19:606-610, 2001
9) Shores J, Berger KR, Murphy EA, Pyeritz RE: Progression of aortic dilatation and the benefit of long-term β-adrenergic blockade in Marfan's syndrome. N Engl Med 330:1335-1341, 1994
10) Groenink M, de Roos A, Mulder BJ et al: Changes in aortic distensibility and pulse wave velocity assessed with magnetic resonance imaging following β-blocker therapy in the Marfan syndrome. Am J Cardiol 82:203-208, 1998
11) Rios AS, Silber EN, Bavishi N et al: Effect of long-term β-blockade on aortic root compliance in patients with Marfan syndrome. Am Heart J 137: 1057-1061, 1999
15) Ahimastos AA, Aggarwal A, D'Orsa KM et al: Effect of perindopril on large artery stiffness and aortic root diameter in patients with Marfan syndrome: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 298:1539-1547, 2007
16) Williams A, Davies S, Stuart AG et al: Medicai treatment of Marfan syndrome: a time for change, Heart 94:141-421, 2008
P.221 掲載の参考文献
1) Struyker-Boudier HA, Smits JF: Antihypertensive action of β-adrenoceptor blocking drugs, The role of intrarenal mechanisms. Am J Hypertens 2 (11pt 2):237S-240S, 1989
5) Erdmann E, Lechat P, Verkenne P, Wiemann H: Results from post-hoc analyses of the CIBIS II trial: effect of bisoprolol in high-risk patient groups with chronic heart failure. Eur J Heart Fail 3:469-479, 2001
6) 日本高血圧学会高血圧治療ガイドライン作成委員会編: 高血圧治療ガイドライン2009, ライフサイエンス出版,東京. 2009
7) 日本腎臓学会編:CKD診療ガイド. 日腎誌 49. 19, 2007
8) 慢性心不全治療ガイドライン作成委員会編: 慢性心不全治療ガイドライン(2010年改訂版). 日本循環器学会, 2010 (http://www.j-circ.or.jp/guideline/index.htm)
P.230 掲載の参考文献
1) 蔵本築, 飯村攻, 池田正男ほか: 本態性高血圧症に対するTA-4708 (Bisoprolol) の臨床効果-Atenololを対照とした二重盲検群間比較試験-. 臨牀と研究 66: 3597-3619, 1989
2) Chatterjee SS: The cardioselective and hypotensive effects of bisoprolol in hypertensive asthmatics. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 8 (Suppl 11):S74-S77, 1986
6) Radack K, Deck C: β-adrenergic blocker therapy does not worsen intermittent claudication in subjects with peripheral arterial disease. A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Arch Intern Med 151:1769-1776, 1991
P.231 掲載の参考文献
7) Van de Ven LL, Van Leeuwen JT, Smit AJ: The influence of chronic treatment with beta blockade and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition on the peripheral blood flow in hypertensive patients with and without concomitant intermittent claudication. A comparative cross-over trial. Vasa 23:357-362, 1994
8) Yasue H. Omote S, Takizawa A, Nagao M: Coronary arterial spasm in ischemic heart disease and its pathogenesis. A review. Circ Res 52:I147-I152, 1983
10) The Japanese B-Blockers and Calcium Antagonists Myocardial Infarction (JBCMI) Investigators: Comparison of the effects of beta blockers and calcium antagonists on cardiovascular events after acute myocardial infarction in Japanese subjects. Am J Cardiol 93:969-973, 2004

Chapter7 使用上の注意

P.242 掲載の参考文献
1) 日本高血圧学会高血圧治療ガイドライン作成委員会編: 高血圧治療ガイドライン2009. ライフサイエンス出版, 東京, 2009
5) CIBIS-II Investigators and Committees: The Cardiac Insufficiency Bisoprolol Study II (CIBIS-II): a randomised trial. Lancet 353:9-13, 1999

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